How Cacao supports with depression and mental wellness!

Updated: Sep 15



cacao antidepressant

I have listed below scientific evidence around the powerful medicinal benefits of Cacao in mental Wellness and its benefits as an Antidepressant. This is a study I had Dr Corin of Seleno Health conduct on the behalf of The Cacao Ambassador. But for the first part of this blog, I would like to share my personal experience post Christchurch Earthquakes and how Cacao literally saved my life!

About 4 months after the February Earthquake, I was thrown into a deep state of depression and anxiety. I now know I had PTSD.

I kept going deeper and deeper into a black hole, saying no to life and becoming more and more fearful of everything, I would have panic attacks in supermarkets, be incapable of knowing what to purchase and spend hours walking around the isle’s. My mind would bombard me with all kinds of negative thoughts. It was as if there was a film of grey and often black across every thought, so I could only see the worst possible outcome. I also thought very little about myself, blaming myself with heavy self judgement. I became skin and bone as there was so much anxiousness inside that there was no room for food. It was as if all my logic and ability to function in the world had disintegrated into pieces, and only the negative, the dark existed in a very dysfunctional way. I was like a ruderless boat being tossed around by my thoughts. Night time was the worst when after perhaps 3 hours of sleep, I would awaken and be victim to the worst fears and doubts. Did I have suicidal thoughts? Most definitely! I wanted and needed a reprieve, and no amount of wise words could help, or support from friends of which I had alot of, could bring me back. However the gift of my children kept me here and somehow there was a tiny thin string that kept me going. But it was only a tiny tiny thread that kept me holding on….


The thing is, with this amount of depression and anxiety, we get ourselves into such a low place, that it is almost impossible to come out. Self care, taking small steps, all are advised, alongside medication but one is so low that the reach for this is sometimes too great and the cycle keeps spinning. I just kept shrinking further and further into darkness and being afraid of the world and of saying yes to anything! In my experience medication only numbed me, and I stopped taking it after one tablet.


It was at this point that a friend gave me a book on Super-foods. I was a Master Chocolatier and worked, albeit not really given my state, with chocolate every day. In this book it listed both Cacao(the ingredient that makes chocolate) and Maca as Being super-foods and very good also combined especially as an ant-depressant.

Something connected inside. I had been given so much advise, that couldn't reach me, but something in this reached me in the dark recesses.

I made myself a promise – I would make myself a Cacao and Maca smoothie every day. I would do that one thing for myself no matter what.

And I did, and literally within 10 days I wasn’t cured but it was as if I could breath and see a pinprick of light!



cacao powder

Here is what I know Cacao does, and is supported by Maca:


Pure powerful Cacao creates space from the thoughts. We still have to master the thoughts, not believe in them, heal them, love them, but when that low, doing this without cacao is like telling someone to swim when they never have. Cacao creates that life ring that allows one to start to relax and have space from being the thoughts and the sensations of negativity and the bombardment of being at the mercy of the thoughts, and gives one a massive helping natural hand. Suddenly one is looking at the the thoughts and holding them rather then being taken by them. One can pick them up and put them down. There is more light and space and moments of quietude and hope and definitely self love. There are more and more moments of the light shining, of possibility being know, and from this place once can start to help themselves in a real way.

Taking Cacao daily was fundamental for this shift at that time in my life.

I remember my first big yes to life! My dear friend Floris called me saying she was returning to Samoa and would I come and visit her on her Cacao farm(I didn’t even know her family owned a cacao farm). And I heard myself saying yes, without considering all the possible difficulties. Afterwards I went into a state of panic but navigated through and found myself in Samoa, being taken by the Cacao trees and greater healing took place. This was massive from where I was three months previously.

cacao farmer

Floris and I under a Cacao Tree, Samoa


And now I don’t get taken by the darkness. I may wake up in a flood of negative thoughts, or a cloud of darkness, or when I take a big leap in my life, be bombarded by all the fears and doubts that could be from childhood or cultural or any negative moment in life where we planted a bomb to go off if we ever stepped over that edge again!

But I have enough experience to know that these thoughts are welcome, that with exercise, my morning Cacao and some yoga, they will dissipate and I will look back and go ‘well that was a storm in a tea cup’. Please know that that storm is all too real when we are in the middle of it. I bow down with heart break for anyone who is in or has gone through what I have experienced. And I know the power and gift of Cacao.


dried bean

Today I work in deep service to Cacao, to share Her voice, to share Her power, especially for Mental wellness. I am in the deepest gratitude for her gift every single day.


One cannot overdose on Her, and she will adjust to what the body needs.

She is a powerful tool for mindfulness, as in taking us into the present moment so we can bare witness to our thoughts rather then be taken by them. Like going into nature or surfing, She creates a space of up-liftment and positivity, and when we trust her enough, she supports genuine joy.


I am a big believer in Joy, in living a life of genuine and true joy, Of smiling no matter what, of laughing deeply and knowing the full colour of this life and this earth no matter the difficulties.



cacao face mask

Theresa and I with Cacao Face Masks, Solomon Islands


And now I consume Cacao continuously all day long! I start my day with an early morning walk either up a mountain or along the beach and half way I pick some where special and I have my Cacao elixir, made with 100% ceremonial paste, water, Maca and maple syrup, in a flask. As I drink this I give thanks for all I am grateful for and I ask her some big questions if I have them. I sit with negative thoughts, I don’t push them away, for they are welcome. Now I know they hold the seeds of some jewels I need to unpack and learn from to grow, but I only look at them when I am in a higher vibration, I don’t let their energy dominate me. For their energy is of the past, and can colour my now reality if I allow them to. They actually don’t want that in my experience. They want to be transformed in the colour of my new reality, but so often when they come to be transformed in our new light we allow their colour to be what we see with. It’s a very fine line of being the new brighter me and allowing that brightness to transform my past and not be dulled by the energies of my past coming home to be loved, as I call it.

That is why I always welcome the thoughts and the feelings but only love them and explore them when I have taken myself into a higher frequency. Einstein once said we cannot solve a problem from the same place that created it. That’s kinda what I mean!

And so my day continues, through the morning I drink Cacao husk tea, and for lunch I have a cacao smoothie, with all kinds of yummy goodies in it, from Cacao nibs, hemp seeps, oat milk, dark chocolate, maca powder, chia seeds, blueberries, hemp oil, frozen bananas, nut butter, flax seed…

In the afternoon I will munch on at least 8 roasted and peeled Cacao beans with some activated nuts and dried fruits. Dinner may contain steamed veg with cacao nibs sprinkled over it or other forms and in the evening I will enjoy a little of dark chocolate that I have made myself. Around 75% is the perfect balance of decadence and goodness!

Lately, as I embark on a bigger adventure, I have been increasing my Cacao Elixir drink to twice a day and honestly access to the fifth dimension is right there. The fears and doubts are there but they don’t hold or grip me. I can embrace feel and enter them but still know who I am..


maca root

I deeply know Cacao and converse with the trees, but knew little of Maca and Maca has helped so much, so two years ago on a pilgrimage to say thank you to Maca, I journeyed with Seleno Health to their farmers village. I harvested and spent a week in Maca’s presence.

The above photo was taken at sun rise, before anyone was up. I laid cacao beans at 4500 meters in the Andes with Maca to sun dry together. This was a profound moment of gratitude to these two powerful medicines for basically saving my life.




Sally and I post harvesting Maca



Here is the Scientific report that I commissioned Dr Corin of Seleno Health to write on the Scientific viewpoint of how Cacao supports Mental Wellness…


Mental Health and Cacao


Mental health disorders are New Zealand’s third leading cause of health loss with conditions such as anxiety, depression, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and attention deficit disorders (ADD) affecting a large portion of people1-4. One in six people or 16.6% of the population (650,000 adults) will experience a common mental disorder at some time in their lives that will drastically impact on the health and well-being4. Socio-economically deprived New Zealanders, women, and Māori all have higher rates of mental health-related issues4. Studies have shown that the biggest barrier to people seeking help is fear of how they will be perceived within society5. Understanding mental health can help alleviate some of the fears surrounding it and also assist to better understand how we can manage it.


Cacao anxiety benefits

When stress becomes too much for some or just when you feel overwhelmed anxiety is a mental health disorder where people feel;

· Excessive worrying or apprehension about several of events or activities

· Difficulty managing the worrying

· Three or more:

  • Restlessness or being “on edge”

  • Easily fatigued

  • Irritability

  • Body tension

  • Sleeping problems

  • Can also be associated with panic attacks and other severe symptoms


Cacao as an anti depressant

Depression can come and go, for some it can be a single episode, or others ongoing recurring episodes3. It is characterized with a depressed mood or loss in pleasure:

· Feeling down almost every day for two weeks or more

· Notably loss of enjoyment in almost all activities during this time

· Significant unintentional weight changes

· Other people notice that you are slowing down in movement or thinking

· Almost constant fatigue

· Recurrent thoughts of self-harm


Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)

This mental health concern is due to the unfortunate experience of a traumatic event. Symptoms vary from person to person and may not manifest immediately. This disorder is characterised by:

· Experiencing a stressor that threatens or experiences serious injury or death

· Persistently re-experiencing traumatic event through nightmares, flashbacks, intrusive thoughts

· Avoidance of triggering emotions, memories, and reminders

· Exhibiting two types of negative alterations in cognition and mood

· May have alterations in arousal and activity

· Lasts more than one month

· Creates distress or emotional impairment

· Not due to other illnesses or medications


Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

Adults suffering from ADHD frequently experience five or more indications of inattention and hyperactivity that impairs daily life7. The symptoms of ADHD include:

· Inattention

· Carelessness: making mistakes and lacking attention detail

· Difficulty concentrating

· Does not listen to direct communications

· Lack of follow-through

· Poor organisation

· Avoids or dislikes tasks with sustained mental effort

· Loses necessary items

· Easily distracted

· Generally forgetful

Hyperactivity/impulsion

· Fidgets

· Leaves conversations randomly

· Restless

· Has trouble with calm activities

· Always on the go

· Talks excessively

· Bursts out comments

· Difficulty waiting

· Interrupts or intrudes on others


For those looking for natural alternatives to improve mental health many may seek complementary or alternative medicines to treat their symptoms9. In Central and South American culture, the cacao bean has always been used a sacred brain food to maintain mental balance and happiness. Now new scientific studies are beginning to explain why cacao is such a powerful plant to help our mental health.


How Cacao works to improve our mental health


1. With brain protecting flavonoids like epicatechin

Cacao is rich in special antioxidants that protect our brain function10,11,12. It contains molecules called flavonoids, that improve memory, cognition, and learning13. Studies of people consuming flavonoids over a 10- year period showed that they preserved their cognitive performance14,15. Cacao flavonoids are rapidly absorbed in the brain and can increase cerebral blood flow reaching peak concentrations within 2-3h after eating16-19. The most prevalent flavonol found in cacao, called epicatechin20, has been independently shown to be beneficial for vascular function and blood flow21. Studies have shown that perceived fear and anxiety can negatively alter cerebral blood flow (CBF)22. So having higher levels of flavanols from cacao in your blood can help reduce anxiety, fear and improve cognition23,24. In larger clinical trials several studies showed that after 5 days or more of consuming cacao people experienced cognitive improvement in many tests, although overall behavioural changes were not noted18,25-32.


2. Through the action of methylxanthines (MXT) like theobromine

The other dominant component of cacao is the family of molecules classified under methylxanthines (MTX), and their metabolic products, which act on key receptors in the brain. The MTX components in cacao include theobromine, caffeine and procyanidins11,35. Cacao only contains low levels of the stimulant caffeine11, but much higher proportions of theobromine, that produces a similar but lesser effect in comparison36,37. So cacao can be a little stimulatory but not as much as foods with high levels of caffeine like coffee. Theobromine is the most bioavailable compound in cacao, as measured in human plasma11. It also penetrates the brain crossing the selective blood-brain barrier for direct effects14. Theobromine improves working memory, acute memory formation and memory use40. The proposed mechanism is that theobromine is an adenosine receptor antagonist, a kind of inhibitor12, but differs from the comparative molecule caffeine12. In fact, theobromine in cacao actually offsets caffeine-related anxiety and sleep disruption10. This suggests theobromine may preferentially bind to different brain regions or types of neurons to specifically enhance memory, offering many more benefits than simple caffeine.


3. By supporting our ‘bliss molecule’ - Anandamide

Cacao also contains trace levels of human amines that may collectively alter mood through promoting the production of our natural bliss molecule called Anadamide. Anadamide is a human cannabinoid that regulates many stress-related functions in our nervous system. Anadamide acts to bring harmony, balance and bliss back to our natural brain function in partnership with neurotransmitters like serotonin. It is still unclear however if cacao directly or indirectly influences Anandamide. One study that has since been refuted claimed that cacao contains anandamide, which when ingested resulted in direct activation of cannabinoid receptors in the brain41. This was strongly refuted by other researchers42, however there has since been proposed a secondary hypothesis that the molecule phenylethylamine (PEA) that exists within cacao actually acts to prevent the reuptake of cannabinoid acting molecules like Anadamide, thereby enhancing the cannabinoid receptor activation indirectly42. This follow-up response declared that the trace amounts of these amines would not be sufficient to induce a mind-altering experience. However, acute administration of cacao showed anti-anxiety responses in a rat stress-test, and long-term ingestion of cacao increased the amount of serotonin in several brain regions43. Serotonin reduces anxiety, amongst other mood-stabilising effects. The trace element PEA, found in cacao is structurally similar to serotonin and dopamine and enhances these uplifting neurotransmitters through secondary mechanisms44,45. So directly or indirectly cacao may offer increased levels of bliss and happiness to our brain when consumed regularly.


4. Through natural antidepressant effects

Antidepressant effects of cacao have been demonstrated in laboratory studies where rats consuming it performed better in stressful situations33. In a similar human study using cacao flavonol tablets to disguise the pronounced taste, acute consumption improved cognitive function and improved self-reported mental fatigue34. Further studies investigating cacao supplementation for anxiety showed acute administration provided anti-anxiety responses, with long-term ingestion increasing the amount of serotonin in several brain regions43. These studies suggest a positive role in cacao consumption for depression and anxiety, by alleviating the symptoms experienced by those struggling.


The clinical research has provided sound evidence to support the use of cacao in the ongoing management of mental health disorders. The molecules it contains have been shown to offer brain protection, improvements in memory, enhancement in mental function as well as anti-depressant and anti-anxiety effects. These properties could be of assistance to those struggling with their mental health. The only complications with the use for such issues is a lack of standardising of active ingredients. Currently there is no known standard for required levels of flavanols, methylxanthines, PEA or other important molecules and not all cacao is equal in terms of its therapeutic quality. Levels of such compounds can vary greatly depending on where and how the cacao has been grown and processed. However, daily consumption of a good quality premium cacao may offer some people benefit for the ongoing management of mental health disorders.


To learn more about cacao visit www.selenohealth.com/cacao and become a cacao expert.


Bibliography

1. Trautmann, S., Rehm, J., & Wittchen, H. U. (2016). The economic costs of mental disorders. EMBO reports, 17(9), 1245-1249. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27491723

2. Wittchen, H.U., Jacobi, F., Rehm, J., Gustavsson, A., Svensson, M., Jönsson, B., Olesen, J., Allgulander, C., Alonso, J., Faravelli, C.L.F.P.J. and Fratiglioni, L., 2011. The size and burden of mental disorders and other disorders of the brain in Europe 2010. European neuropsychopharmacology, 21(9), 655-679. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21896369

3. Kessler, R. C., Petukhova, M., Sampson, N. A., Zaslavsky, A. M., & Wittchen, H. U. (2012). Twelve‐month and lifetime prevalence and lifetime morbid risk of anxiety and mood disorders in the United States. International journal of methods in psychiatric research, 21(3), 169-184. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22865617

4. Mental Health and Illness. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.cph.co.nz/your-health/mental-illness/

5. Andrade, L.H., Alonso, J., Mneimneh, Z., Wells, J.E., Al-Hamzawi, A., Borges, G., Bromet, E., Bruffaerts, R., De Girolamo, G., De Graaf, R. and Florescu, S., 2014. Barriers to mental health treatment: results from the WHO World Mental Health surveys. Psychological medicine, 44(6), pp.1303-1317.

6. Schiffman, S. S., Gill, J. M., & Diaz, C. (1985). Methyl xanthines enhance taste: Evidence for modulation of taste by adenosine receptor. Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior, 22(2), 195-203. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2580320.

7. American Psychiatric Association: Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders: Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition. Arlington, VA: Amehemrican Psychiatric Association, 2013.

8. Gureje, O., Nortje, G., Makanjuola, V., Oladeji, B. D., Seedat, S., & Jenkins, R. (2015). The role of global traditional and complementary systems of medicine in the treatment of mental health disorders. The Lancet Psychiatry, 2(2), 168-177. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26359753

9. Nehlig, A. (2013). The neuroprotective effects of cocoa flavanol and its influence on cognitive performance. British journal of clinical pharmacology, 75(3), 716-727. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22775434

10. Kim, J., Kim, J., Shim, J., Lee, C. Y., Lee, K. W., & Lee, H. J. (2014). Cocoa phytochemicals: recent advances in molecular mechanisms on health. Critical reviews in food science and nutrition, 54(11), 1458-1472. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24580540

11. Franco, R., Oñatibia-Astibia, A., & Martínez-Pinilla, E. (2013). Health benefits of methylxanthines in cacao and chocolate. Nutrients, 5(10), 4159-4173. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3820066/

12. Vauzour, D., Vafeiadou, K., Rodriguez-Mateos, A., Rendeiro, C., & Spencer, J. P. (2008). The neuroprotective potential of flavonoids: a multiplicity of effects. Genes & nutrition, 3(3), 115. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18937002

13. Letenneur, L., Proust-Lima, C., Le Gouge, A., Dartigues, J. F., & Barberger-Gateau, P. (2007). Flavonoid intake and cognitive decline over a 10-year period. American journal of epidemiology, 165(12), 1364-1371. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17369607

14. Verstraeten, S. V., Keen, C. L., Schmitz, H. H., Fraga, C. G., & Oteiza, P. I. (2003). Flavan-3-ols and procyanidins protect liposomes against lipid oxidation and disruption of the bilayer structure. Free Radical Biology and Medicine, 34(1), 84-92.

15. Liu, X., Smith, B. J., Chen, C., Callegari, E., Becker, S. L., Chen, X., ... & Hosea, N. (2005). Use of a physiologically based pharmacokinetic model to study the time to reach brain equilibrium: an experimental analysis of the role of blood-brain barrier permeability, plasma protein binding, and brain tissue binding. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, 313(3), 1254-1262. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15743928

16. El Mohsen, M. M. A., Kuhnle, G., Rechner, A. R., Schroeter, H., Rose, S., Jenner, P., & Rice-Evans, C. A. (2002). Uptake and metabolism of epicatechin and its access to the brain after oral ingestion. Free Radical Biology and Medicine, 33(12), 1693-1702. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12488137

17. Francis, S. T., Head, K., Morris, P. G., & Macdonald, I. A. (2006). The effect of flavanol-rich cocoa on the fMRI response to a cognitive task in healthy young people. Journal of cardiovascular pharmacology, 47, S215-S220.

18. Xie, L., Kang, H., Xu, Q., Chen, M.J., Liao, Y., Thiyagarajan, M., O’Donnell, J., Christensen, D.J., Nicholson, C., Iliff, J.J. and Takano, T., 2013. Sleep drives metabolite clearance from the adult brain. science, 342(6156), pp.373-377. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24136970

19. Pérez-Jiménez, J., Neveu, V., Vos, F., & Scalbert, A. (2010). Identification of the 100 richest dietary sources of polyphenols: an application of the Phenol-Explorer database. European journal of clinical nutrition, 64(S3), S112. http://phenol-explorer.eu/contents/food/536

20. Schroeter, H., Heiss, C., Balzer, J., Kleinbongard, P., Keen, C. L., Hollenberg, N. K., ... & Kelm, M. (2006). (–)-Epicatechin mediates beneficial effects of flavanol-rich cocoa on vascular function in humans. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 103(4), 1024-1029.

21. Hasler, G., Fromm, S., Alvarez, R. P., Luckenbaugh, D. A., Drevets, W. C., & Grillon, C. (2007). Cerebral blood flow in immediate and sustained anxiety. Journal of Neuroscience, 27(23), 6313-6319. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2713601/

22. Chapman, S. B., Aslan, S., Spence, J. S., Hart Jr, J. J., Bartz, E. K., Didehbani, N., ... & Lu, H. (2013). Neural mechanisms of brain plasticity with complex cognitive training in healthy seniors. Cerebral cortex, 25(2), 396-405. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23985135

23. Mozolic, J. L., Hayaska, S., & Laurienti, P. J. (2010). A cognitive training intervention increases resting cerebral blood flow in healthy older adults. Frontiers in human neuroscience, 4, 16. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2841485/

24. Socci, V., Tempesta, D., Desideri, G., De Gennaro, L., & Ferrara, M. (2017). Enhancing human cognition with cocoa flavonoids. Frontiers in nutrition, 4, 19. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28560212

25. Crews WD, Harrison DW, Wright JW. A double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial of the effects of dark chocolate and cocoa on variables associated with neuropsychological functioning and cardiovascular health: clinical findings from a sample of healthy, cognitively intact older adults. Am J Clin Nutr (2008) 87:872–80.

26. Camfield DA, Scholey A, Pipingas A, Silberstein R, Kras M, Nolidin K, et al. Steady state visually evoked potential (SSVEP) topography changes associated with cocoa flavanol consumption. Physiol Behav (2012) 105:948–57. doi:10.1016/j.physbeh.2011.11.013

27. Desideri G, Kwik-Uribe C, Grassi D, Necozione S, Ghiadoni L, Mastroiacovo D, et al. Benefits in cognitive function, blood pressure, and insulin resistance through cocoa flavanol consumption in elderly subjects with mild cognitive impairment: the Cocoa, Cognition, and Aging (CoCoA) Study. Hypertension (2012) 60:794–801. doi:10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.112.193060

28. Sorond FA, Hurwitz S, Salat DH, Greve DN, Fisher ND. Neurovascular coupling, cerebral white matter integrity, and response to cocoa in older people. Neurology (2013) 81:904–9. doi:10.1212/WNL.0b013e3182a351aa

29. Brickman AM, Khan UA, Provenzano FA, Yeung LK, Suzuki W, Schroeter H, et al. Enhancing dentate gyrus function with dietary flavanols improves cognition in older adults. Nat Neurosci (2014) 17:1798–803. doi:10.1038/nn.3850

30. Mastroiacovo D, Kwik-Uribe C, Grassi D, Necozione S, Raffaele A, Pistacchio L, et al. Cocoa flavanol consumption improves cognitive function, blood pressure control, and metabolic profile in elderly subjects: the Cocoa, Cognition, and Aging (CoCoA) Study—a randomized controlled trial. Am J Clin Nutr (2015) 101:538–48. doi:10.3945/ajcn.114.092189

31. Neshatdoust S, Saunders C, Castle SM, Vauzour D, Williams C, Butler L, et al. High-flavonoid intake induces cognitive improvements linked to changes in serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor: two randomised, controlled trials. Nutr Healthy Aging (2016) 24:81–93. doi:10.3233/NHA-1615

32. Messaoudi, M., Bisson, J. F., Nejdi, A., Rozan, P., & Javelot, H. (2008). Antidepressant-like effects of a cocoa polyphenolic extract in Wistar–Unilever rats. Nutritional neuroscience, 11(6), 269-276.

33. Massee, L. A., Ried, K., Pase, M., Travica, N., Yoganathan, J., Scholey, A., ... & Pipingas, A. (2015). The acute and sub-chronic effects of cocoa flavanols on mood, cognitive and cardiovascular health in young healthy adults: a randomized, controlled trial. Frontiers in pharmacology, 6, 93. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4438591/

34. Hammerstone, J. F., Lazarus, S. A., Mitchell, A. E., Rucker, R., & Schmitz, H. H. (1999). Identification of procyanidins in cocoa (Theobroma cacao) and chocolate using high-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 47(2), 490-496. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10563922

35. Craig, W. J., & Nguyen, T. T. (1984). Caffeine and theobromine levels in cocoa and carob products. Journal of Food Science, 49(1), 302-303.

36. Belščak, A., Komes, D., Horžić, D., Ganić, K. K., & Karlović, D. (2009). Comparative study of commercially available cocoa products in terms of their bioactive composition. Food Research International, 42(5-6), 707-716. https://pubag.nal.usda.gov/catalog/755780

37. Wollgast, J., & Anklam, E. (2000). Review on polyphenols in Theobroma cacao: changes in composition during the manufacture of chocolate and methodology for identification and quantification. Food Research International, 33(6), 423-447.

38. Oracz, J., Nebesny, E., & Żyżelewicz, D. (2015). Changes in the flavan-3-ols, anthocyanins, and flavanols composition of cocoa beans of different Theobroma cacao L. groups affected by roasting conditions. European Food Research and Technology, 241(5), 663-681.

39. Islam, R., Matsuzaki, K., Sumiyoshi, E., Hossain, M.E., Hashimoto, M., Katakura, M., Sugimoto, N. and Shido, O., 2019. Theobromine Improves Working Memory by Activating the CaMKII/CREB/BDNF Pathway in Rats. Nutrients, 11(4), p.888. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31010016

40. Di Tomaso, E., Beltramo, M., & Piomelli, D. (1996). Brain cannabinoids in chocolate. Nature, 382(6593), 677. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8751435

41. Di Marzo, V., Sepe, N., De Petrocellis, L., Berger, A., Crozier, G., Fride, E., & Mechoulam, R. (1998). Trick or treat from food endocannabinoids?. Nature, 396(6712), 636. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9872309

42. Yamada, T., Yamada, Y., Okano, Y., Terashima, T., & Yokogoshi, H. (2009). Anxiolytic effects of short-and long-term administration of cacao mass on rat elevated T-maze test. The Journal of nutritional biochemistry, 20(12), 948-955.

43. Irsfeld, M., Spadafore, M., & Prüß, B. M. (2013). β-phenylethylamine, a small molecule with a large impact. Webmedcentral, 4(9).

44. Melzig, M. F., Putscher, I., Henklein, P., & Haber, H. (2000). In vitro pharmacological activity of the tetrahydroisoquinoline salsolinol present in products from Theobroma cacao L. like cocoa and chocolate. Journal of ethnopharmacology, 73(1-2), 153-159.




621 views0 comments